Updated: Nov 22, 2022
Maui Hikina–Traditions of the Pi‘ilani Line
Mo‘olelo ‘Äina: Waikamoi Preserve 17 Kumu Pono Associates LLC
HE MO‘OLELO NO MAUI HIKINA– KALIALINUI I UKA A ME NÄ ‘ÄINA O LALO A CULTURAL-HISTORICAL STUDY OF EAST MAUI– THE UPLANDS OF KALIALINUI, AND THE LANDS THAT LIE BELOW, ISLAND OF MAUI “THE WAIKAMOI PRESERVE” PREPARED BY Kepä Maly • Cultural Historian - Resource Specialist & Onaona Maly • Researcher PREPARED FOR The Nature Conservancy of Hawai‘i – Maui Program P.O. Box 1716 Makawao, Hawai‘i 96768 JULY 2, 2006 © 2006 Kumu Pono Associates LLC
Writing under the title “Ka Moolelo o Kamehameha I” (The History of Kamehameha I), and later under the title “Ka Mo‘olelo o na Kamehameha” (The History of the Kamehamehas), Kamakau referenced several traditional accounts and historical events of the Hämäkua-Ko‘olau region. Among the traditions recorded by Kamakau is an account of the chief Kiha-a-Pi‘ilani (ca. 1600), son of the famed chief Pi‘ilani, and chiefess Lä‘ie-lohelohe-i-ka-wai. After the death of his parents, Kiha-a-Pi‘ilani, lived under his elder brother Lono-a-Pi‘ilani. Lono-a-Pi‘ilani, began mistreating Kiha-a-Pi‘ilani, and in order to protect himself, Kiha-a-Pi‘ilani and his wife, Kumaka, fled to Moloka‘i, and Läna‘i, and eventually returned to Maui in secret. Kamakau explains, that for a time, the couple lived in the uplands of Honua‘ula, Kula, and Makawao. It was during that time, that mention is made of Hämäkua Poko, and we learn that ‘uala (sweet potatoes) were planted in the region. Kamakau also relates that Kiha-aPi‘ilani traveled to Päpa‘a‘ea, Ke‘anae, and Häna, and he set in motion his plan to take the kingdom of Maui: Lono-a-Pi‘i-lani took care of Kiha-a-Pi‘i-lani, and the latter cared for the people by giving them food. Lono-a-Pi‘i-lani became angry, for he felt Kiha-a-Pi‘i-lani was doing it to seize the kingdom for himself… Lono-a-Pi‘i-lani sought to kill Kiha, so he [and his wife] fled in secret to Molokai… [and] Lanai. From Lanai he sailed and landed at Kapoli in Ma‘alaea and from thence [p. 22] to the upland of Honua‘ula… They lived on the charity of others at the boundary of Honua‘ula and Kula, at a place named Ke‘eke‘e. They lived with farmers in the remote country… They lived in poverty, but knew of the blessings to come… [They then] went away in secret and lived close to the boundary of Kula and Makawao. Kiha-a-Pi‘i-lani was befriended by a woman of the place, named La‘ie, and they were made welcome by her. There they lived. Many people came there to play games and to go swimming in a pool, Waimalino. Kula and a part of Makawao were waterless lands, and so this pool became a place where all enjoyed themselves and danced hulas. Although La‘ie extended her hospitality to Kiha-a-Pi‘i-lani, he kept his identity a secret, lest he be killed. Kiha-a-Pi‘ilani slept so much in the house that his hosts began to complain, and his wife told him about it. There was a famine in Kula and Makawao, and the people subsisted on laulele, pualele, popolo, and other weeds. One night Kiha-a-Pi‘i-lani went to clear a patch of ferns to plant
sweet potatoes, and on that same night he made a large one that would naturally require the labor of eighty men to clear. When morning [page 23] came, the huge patch was noticed, an immense one indeed. The people said skeptically of this great undertaking, “Where will he find enough sweet-potato slips to cover the patch?” Next day Kiha-a-Pi‘ilani went to Hamakuapoko and Hali‘imaile to ask for potato slips. The natives gave him whole patches of them wherever he went. “Take a big load of the slips and the potatoes too if you want them” [they said]. He went to clean a number of morning-glory vines and returned. The owners who gave him the contents of their patches had gone home. He pulled up the vines and whatever potatoes adhered to them, and allowed them to wilt in the sun. After they had wilted he laid out the morning-glory vines to bind them, laid the sweet-potato vines on them, and tied them. He went on doing this until he had enough loads for ten men to carry. Then he made a carrier (‘awe‘awe) of morning-glory vines, placed the bundles of slips in it, and lifted it with great strength onto his back. The sunshine beat down on his back, the ‘uki‘ukiu breeze blew in front of him, the ‘Ulalena rain added its share, and intense heat reflected from the ‘ulei vines. One old man remarked to another, “There must be a chief near by for this is the first time that a rainbow is spread before the trees.” As they were speaking a man came from below with a huge load on his back, and they called to him to come into the house. He shifted his load, saw the old men, Kau-lani and his companion, let down his burden, and entered. Each of them gave him a bundle of popolo greens and sweet potato which he ate until he was satisfied. They asked, “Where are you going?” He answered, “I am returning to the boundary of Kula and Makawao.” “Are you a native of the place?” they inquired. “Yes,” he replied. They said, “There is not a native from Kula to Hamakua with whom we are not acquainted. You are a stranger.” “Yes, I am a stranger.” They said, “The god has revealed your identity. You are a chief, Kiha-a-Pi‘i-lani.” He answered, “I am he. Conceal your knowledge of me and tell no one.” They said, “The secrets of the god we cannot tell to others, because you have been mistreated. The man that can help you lives below Hamakuapoko, at Pa‘ia. His name is ‘A-puni.” When they had finished talking, Kiha-a-Pi‘i-lani returned to his dwelling place with his huge bundle of sweetpotato slips. One bundle of slips was sufficient to cover every mound of the whole field. No sooner were they planted than a shower fell, and the chief who made efforts at farming was pleased. His effort was vain when he was refused help by ‘A-puni. ‘A-puni directed him to Kukuiho‘oleilei in Papa‘a‘ea who in turn directed him to Ka-luko in the upland of Ke‘anae. He was again directed to Lanahu in Wakiu, and he was directed by Weua-Lanahu to go down to Kawaipapa [page 24] to consult Ka-hu‘akole at Waipuna‘alae. Kiha-a-Pi‘i-lani became a ward of Ka-hu‘akole, a person of prominence. It was said that he was an able person in directing the affairs of the land, and [it was] believed that Kiha-a-Pi‘i-lani would be avenged on his brother, Lono-a-Pi‘i-lani… [Kamakau 1961:25] Kamakau’s narratives record events that led up to Kiha-a-Pi‘ilani becoming the King of Maui, through the help of his brother-in-law, ‘Umi-a-Lïloa, King of Hawai‘i. At one point a great fleet of war canoes from Hawai‘i were landed on the shores of Wailua-iki and Wailua-nui. The warriors then traveled over land and entered into battle at ‘Ula‘ino and continued on to Häna. The warriors of Kiha-a-Pi‘ilani and ‘Umi-a-Lïloa were victorious, and Kiha-a-Pi‘ilani was established as king of Maui (Kamakau 1961:29- 32). In addition to the above cited narratives, noted native historian, Moses Manu (whose family had been among the native residents of the ‘Öhi‘a vicinity, Ko‘olau District), and contributor to the abbreviated account published by Abraham Fornander (1918 & 1996), added important references to places and lands of the Hämäkua-Ko‘olau region. In his account, titled “Ka Moolelo o Kihapiilani” (published in the native language newspaper Ku Okoa; January 12th to August 23d 1884), Manu described
disposition of lands in the region and told readers about the good work undertaken by Kihapi‘ilani, including construction of the paved (kïpapa) trail from “Oopuloa” (a type-setting transposition of ‘O‘opuola) at Ko‘olau, to Kawaipapa, Häna (this trail was completed around the island of Maui). The following narratives (translated by Maly), are a synopsis of Manu’s narratives: …Upon securing his rule over Maui, Kihapi‘ilani determined that he was going to build a heiau, a house for the gods. His chiefs, priests and people all concurred, and the stones were gathered from Kaiakahauli, on the northeast of Honokalani and the point of Nanu‘alele, and taken to Honua‘ula, above the hill of Ka‘uiki, where the great heiau was built… ‘Öhi‘a logs for the images of the heiau was gathered from the forest of Kealakona in the uplands of Honomä‘ele. At the time that the logs were gathered and borne to Honua‘ula, the alanui (trails) were treacherous, and the hala groves were thick. The logs were often caught in the rocks and forest growth, and impossible to move. The priest called Kihapi‘ilani, and asked him to go to the head of a log, and in doing so, his mana, enabled the logs to be moved through the tangle of the woods. The place where the path was made while gathering the ‘öhi‘a logs may still be seen along the alanui kahiko (ancient trail)… When the work on the heiau was completed, and the dedication made, Kihapi‘ilani remembered the kindness of Köleamoku (his second wife, who he had married while living at Häna). To her, he gave the lands of Hämoa, Haneo‘o, and Wailua at Häna; Waiohue and Waianu at Ko‘olau; and Päpa‘a‘ea and Honopou at Hämäkua Loa… Kihapi‘ilani then called upon the chiefs and commoners alike, having them gather the ‘alä makahinu (dense basalt stones) to build an alanui (trail). The trail began at the stream of Kawaipapa and Pihehe, and entered the hala forest of Kahalaowaka. From that place, it went to the forest of ‘Akiala‘a at Honomä‘ele. It was laid out and paved with ‘alä stones. Also at Kïpahulu paving was begun, and laid out from ‘Alae-iki to Kuikui‘ula. In some of these lands, the kïpapa has been destroyed in the road work of T.K. Clarke, with the stones cast aside or buried at this time. The trail was also set out at Kaupö, from the stream (gulch) of Manawainui to Kumunui. That was the extent of the work of the king and the people. He then began the paving in the forest of ‘O‘opuloa [i.e., ‘O‘opuola], at Ko‘olau, extending from Kawahinepe‘e to Kaloa, then on to Päpa‘a‘ea, and on to Ka‘ohekanu at Hämäkua Loa. This was a place made famous in olden times because of the pöwä (robbers). There was much treachery upon this road, and it was difficult traveling for the visitors. But, when Kihapi‘ilani caused the paving (kïpapa‘ia), it became a good alanui (trail) to travel by. In recent years, some of the stones have been displaced by the people who are making the roads (alanui) of these times. There is once again, much trouble for those who travel the roads. It has been damaged by the animals (holoholona), and has many potholes. There is much trouble for the visitors and the mail carriers who travel between Häna and Ha‘ikü. Now when the King (Kihapi‘ilani) completed his work in this area, he moved and lived at Kahului, where he began the collection of stones for the kuapä (fishpond walls) of Mauoni and Kanahä. He is the one who caused the water in those two ponds to be separated, and given two names. The kuapä is still there to this day, but a large portion of it has been lost, covered under the sands flying in the winds. When this work was completed, Kihapi‘ilani then departed for Waiehu and ‘Ä‘äpueo… [Manu in Nupepa Ku Okoa, August 23, 1884:4; Maly, translator] Fornander (1996) also reported that Kihapi‘ilani: …kept peace and order in the country, encouraged agriculture, and improved and caused to be paved the difficult and often dangerous roads over the Palis of Kaupo, Hana, and Koolau—a stupendous work for those times, the remains of which may still be seen in many places, and are pointed out as the “Kipapa of Kihapiilani.” His reign was eminently peaceful and prosperous, and his name has been reverently and affectionately handed down to posterity… [Fornander 1996:206] .