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Updated: Nov 21, 2022

Photo: Kuʻialuaopuna

Ruling Chiefs of Hawaii

Samuel M. Kamakau

Revised Edition

pgs 47-63

Lono-i-ka-makahiki was a son of Keawe-nui-a-ʻUmi, and was chief of Ka-ʻu and Puna. He was sole ruler over those two districts on Hawaii. He was married to a chiefess, named Ka-iki-lani-kohe-paniʻo, who was descended from Laea-nui-kau-manamana. To them were born sons, Keawe-Hanau-i-ka-walu and Ka-ʻihi-kapu-mahana. They became ancestors of chiefs and commoners. Lono was a chief who did not heed the advice of his priests and counselors, and so his wisest counselors deserted him and sought a better lord. Thus did Lanahu-ʻimi-haku and others leave him to seek a lord who listened and heeded advice. They sought another lord and dwelt with Ka-ʻihi-kapu-a-Kuʻihewa on Oahu, with the hope that he was a righteous chief who listened to all that the priests and counselors taught him.

While Lono lived with his wife, Ka-iki-lani, he proved to be a bad-tempered chief, who was jealous of his wife because of her beauty, and frequently gave her a beating. They left Ka-ʻu and lived at Kealakekua, Kona, with other chiefs from Ka-ʻu. One day Lono was playing checkers (konane) on a large flat stone in a big coconut-leaf shed with the chiefs and chiefesses, including Ka-iki-lani. Each tried his skill with pebbles on the board of Paʻoa. There were some people there who wished to tease because they disliked the chiefess and were jealous of the beauty of her face and form. They thought of finding a cause for her to be killed by being beaten. If they should be questioned they were [some distance away] on the cliff of Manuahi. They listened in the wilderness and called out, "O chiefess JCa-iki-lani of Puna, the youth of the dark cliff of Hea sends you his regards." Ka-iki-lani heard them and began to talk loudly, "That goes forward, this flees. The white is removed, the black wins." But the mischief-makers still called loudly, making mention of her lover, in this manner, "O Ka-iki-lani, beautiful chiefess of Puna, your lowly lover Hea-a-ke-koa sends his regards." Lono and the chiefs heard, and so did all the people who were gathered there, inside and outside of the shed. Lono grasped a block of wood and

* For Lono-i-ka-makahiki see 13, 2. pp. 114-127; 14, Col. 4, pp. 256-362; Col. 5, pp. 436-450; 16, pp. 317-333.



cruelly beat his wife, unmercifully smiting her to death. When he saw that she was dead, an unhappy feeling possessed him, and he became crazy with the grief for his wife. He travelled about Hawaii, Maui, Oahu, and finally Kauai.

Upon reaching Kauai, he lost his mind completely and wandered to the wilderness. His own followers, favorites and personal attendants, went after him, but the cold and the rains drove them back. They all deserted him except one man, Kapa-ʻihi-a-hilina, who followed him in spite of cold, chill, hunger, poverty, and lack of clothing. Their loin clothes were torn off by the staghorn ferns and shrubbery. They used ti leaves for loin cloths and body coverings. Their food was bananas, the hala fruit blackened and mildewed by the rain, and the wild sugar cane of the mountains. Thus they wandered in the wilderness in poverty and hunger for many months. Lono was crazed with grief for his wife. Kapa-ʻihi-a-hilina took good care of him as though he were a personal attendant, one related by blood; but he was a native of Kauai who was entirely unrelated to him. This man cared for him patiently and these were among the things he did: When he cut down a bunch of ripe bananas, he saved the inside of the banana for Lono and ate the skin; the inside of the sugar cane was Lono's, and the outer skin his. Thus they ate of the food they found in the mountains. Any left-overs of the food that Lono ate, were saved by Kapa-ʻihi-a-hilina. When sanity returned to Lono, they ceased to wander in the wilderness and returned to the shore.

After Lono returned to Hawaii, he attended to the affairs of his kingdom. He tended it well, and cared for strong paddlers and other men who were -skilled in various arts, the soothsayers and warriors. He became a chief who earned the gratitude of his subjects.*

Lono made a favorite of Kapa-ʻihi-a-hilina, a person of importance before the chiefs and other members of the court, Kapa-ʻihi was made steward over all the property of the chief, but tattlers who were jealous of his being a favorite went to the chief to find fault.

When Kapa-ʻihi was no longer a favorite to the chief he reminded him of their life of poverty in the wilderness of Kauai, where they wandered about hungry. Therefore great affection welled up in the chief, and Kapa-ʻihi-a-hilina became a greater favorite than he was before. Kapa-ʻihi-a-hilina composed a chant of affection for the chief, recounting their wanderings in the wilderness of Kauai, and this is the chant:†

* Ke Au ʻOkoʻa, Jan. 12, 1871.

† The song is translated by Pukui independently of John Wise's version in Fornander.


O Lono-i-ka-makahiki ka pua o Lono-i-ka-makahiki, off spring of a

Kalani, chief,

O Kalani kapu a Keawe i hanau. A tapu heavenly one born to


Hanau Kalani keʻlii ku halau, The heavenly one was born a chief

with great power,

He halau nehe Lono mai Kapaʻahu, With the tapu of silence from


Ka ʻahuʻula kapu o Ku-malana- The tapu feather cape of Ku-

hewa, malana-hewa.

Ua hewa, ua hewa e— A fault has been committed—

Ua hewa ia na la he hoʻomauhala, The fault is the bearing of a


ʻAʻole ʻano hala i hoʻomau ai e It is not a fault to be cherished, O

Kalani, heavenly one!

Kiʻi malu a ka pua a kalana, That you should want to be rid of

the offspring of the district,

He kalana ka i ka hele ana, The district through which we

have journeyed,

Hele ana i ʻOpikana-nui i Journeying to ʻOpikana-nui, to

ʻOpikana-lani, ʻOpikana-lani,

I kahua a kanuʻu i ka papa kalena, To the broad tableland,

He au ka ʻaina, The foundation land,

Ka ʻaina o Wakea i noho ai eo The land of Wakea, where Wakea

Wakea, dwelt,

O Wakea ka lani. Wakea, the heavenly one.

Ka pua o Keawe i hanau, The chief begotten of Keawe,

Hanau mamua ka hoa, The companion was born first

Ukali aku mamuli ka hele, Who followed him [Lono] in his


Oi hele mai ka wa kini, Who followed him out of days of


A hune, a mehameha, a kanaka Into poverty, loneliness, desolate

ʻole. places.

Hele koʻolua i ka nahele, They two wandered in the forest,

I ka laʻau koa kumu ʻole o Ka-hihi- To the rootless koa tree at Ka-

kolo. hihi-kolo.

Hilihili aku i ka mola palai pau, Fern leaves were woven into loin


Hahaki i ka lauki peʻa ma ke kua, Ti leaves were broken off and

worn on the back,

Ia loaʻa ke kepa ʻaʻahu o kaua, Thus were we clothed,

O hele, o hele a— Wandering, wandering on,


O hele aʻai i ka hua pala a ka hala. Wandering and living on the ripe

fruit of the pandanus.

Hala ia la pololi o kaua e ka hoa e, Thus passed our days of hunger,

O my companion,

Ka ua kaʻeʻe, ua makani, Through the pouring rain, the

wind-blown rain,

Ka ua hoʻokinakina a nui, The ceaselessly pouring rain,

A nui a kau a malie ia ua. Through much heavy rain, through

light rain, until the rain


Inu aku i ka awa o Koʻukoʻu, We drank the ʻawa of Koʻukoʻu,

I ka ʻawa lau hinalo ʻaʻala, The fragant-leafed ʻawa,

ʻAwa ʻona o Mamalahoa, he hoa e, The potent ʻawa of Mamalahoa, O

my companion.

He kaʻupu e Lono e, A friend [was I] O Lono,

He kanaka au no ka ua iki, A server was I in the light rain,

Ina hoʻi ha he hoa au no ka ua iki I was your companion in the light

la paʻia rain of the forest,

He hoa i ka nahele lauhala loloa, A companion in the long-leafed

pandanus groves,

Mai Kilauea a Kahili la, [That extend] from Kilauea to


O ka hala i ʻaiʻna kepa ʻia e ka The pandanus [whose fruit] is

manu pecked by the birds,

O Poʻoku i Hanalei la. [The pandanus] of Poʻoku in


Hala ia mao a ka ua e ka hoa e, There we were till the rain ceased

falling, O my companion,

He hoa i ka makani lauwili My companion in the hurrying

Poʻaihele, whirlwind,

Mauka o Hanalei iki a Hanalei nui, In the uplands of lesser Hanalei,

of greater Hanalei,

Mauka mai hoʻi kekahi ua, [In] the rain that came from the


Makai mai hoʻi kekahi ua, Rain that came from the lowlands,

Ma naʻe mai hoʻi kekahi ua, Rain that came from the east,

Malalo mai hoʻi kekahi ua, Rain that came from the south,

Maluna iho hoʻi kekahi ua, Rain that came from above,

Malalo aʻe hoʻi kekahi ua, Rain that came from below,

Ma ka lae hala o Puʻupaoa, Along the cape of Puʻupaoa, over-

grown with pandanus,

Ilaila ka ua kike hala, There was the rain that pelted the

pandanus fruit,

Hoʻowalea ike one ʻai a ke kinaʻu, Drenching the sand where the sand

eels fed,

He kiaʻu ʻai hala o Mahamoku, The eels that ate the pandanus of


Ka ua hoʻopala ʻohiʻa o Waiʻoli. The rain that ripened the mountain

apples of Waiʻoli.

He ʻoliʻoli au e pono o ʻoe ka haku I was glad that you were my lord,


O ka haku maka o Kalamanuʻu, Lord beloved by the moʻo goddess


O ka Makalei-o-Ku kalai aku By Makalei-o-Ku from which was

Hoʻoneʻenuʻu carved Hoʻoneʻenuʻu,

Ke ana a Kalaukanikani. [At] the cave of Kalaukanikani.

Kaniku hele ka ua i kaupaku o ka The rain patters on the roofs of the

hale o moe a, sleeping houses,

Ilaila ka ua haʻa hula i ka nahele. Then it dances away to the forest.

Haʻahaʻa ka ua i ka nahele, Quietly fell the rain in the forest,

Lauwili ka ua i ka nahele, Whirling came the rain in the


ʻOpeʻa ka ua i ka nahele, The rain in the forest twisted this

way and that,

Kiilihuna ka ua i ka nahele, Drop by drop fell the rain in the


Pohina ka ua i ka nahele, Mist-like fell the rain in the forest,

Anuanu ka ua i ka nahele, Chilly was the rain in the forest,

Koʻekoʻe ka ua i ka nahele, The rain in the forest was cold,

ʻOpili ka ua i ka nahele, The rain in the forest chilled

through to the bone,

Haʻukeke ka ua i ka nahele, The rain in the forest made one


Hoʻopala ʻohiʻa ka ua i ka nahele, The rain in the forest ripened the

mountain apples,

I ka nahele o Laʻauhaʻeleʻele e hele In the forest of Laʻauhaʻeleʻele

a. where we wandered.

Walea kanaka i ka helea hoʻi mai, The server went forth in peace,

and upon returning,

He lalo ʻino, he lalo ʻakiʻaki ka ko He found trouble, a back-biting

muli nei, among inferiors,

Eia mamuli ka ukali kaʻeleʻele, About the dark-skinned man who

had followed you,

Kepai ka hoʻokuke a. The favorite, who is being ban-



He nani nei hele, ua hoʻokuke ʻoe, It is well that I should go, for you

have sent me away,

Eia la ka hewa o ka noho hale. The owner of the house has found

fault with me.

O ka noho a ku aʻe haʻalele, Had I stayed and then gone away

without cause,

Loʻaa la koʻu kina ilaila, That would have been wrong of


Ko ka ohua ukali ʻino a. Your companion, who followed

you in stormy weather.

Aloha a haʻalele ia ʻoe ke hele nei. Farewell, I leave you and go.

Ia hele kikaha aʻe la kaua a Hopu- The rain of Hopukoa passes by


A Waialoha, eia la e— At Waialoha, and so

Aloha wale ana ka wau ia ʻoe iloko I bid farewell to you, who remain

o ka uahoa. in anger.

When Lono heard this chant of Kapa-ʻihi-a-hilina, relating all the places they had wandered in destitution, in hunger, poverty, cold, chill, and of their being robbed by others, affection welled up in him so that he wept and could not hold back his tears. Therefore Kapa-ʻihi-a-hilina became ten times the favorite he was before.

During Lono's reign, when he tended to the affairs of his kingdom, the chiefs and commoners lived in peace. He desired to go to see Kauai, to see the places he had wandered while insane, to see Kaʻula and to plunge into the water of Namolokama. Kama-lala-walu was the chief of Maui, Kane-kapu-a-Kuʻihewa and Ka-ʻihi-kapu-a-Kuʻihewa were the chiefs of Oahu on the Kona and Koʻolau sides, and Ke-alohi-iki-kaupeʻa, Ka-uhi-a-hiwa, and Kawelo-ʻahu were the chiefs of Kauai. Lono-i-ka-makahiki sought the good will of these chiefs when he came to meet and associate with them in a friendly manner. There were to be no wars between one chief and another.

The chiefly emblem of Hawaii was a large feathered staff (kahili). Hawaii-loa was the name of Lono-i-ka-makahiki's kahili, and these feathered staffs were not common among chiefs of the other islands. Only in Hawaii were the ʻoʻo birds found in great numbers. When Lono travelled, the large kahili was wrapped up. When it was set up the men in Lono's canoe prostrated themselves. In this way was the Makahiki god also honored. When Lono sailed from Hawaii, his emblem was erected, and on the tops of the masts hung kaʻupu bird [skins] like banners, the wing-spreads of which were a fathom and


more in length. They were hung at the very top of the masts. His voyage to meet the chiefs of Maui was an awesome sight.

Kama-lala-walu, ruler of Maui, met him and welcomed him royally. The chiefly host and guest spent much time in surfing, a sport that was enjoyed by all. It showed which man or which woman was skilled; not only that, but which man or woman was the best looking. It was a pleasing sight, and that was why chiefs and commoners enjoyed surfing. Lono and Kama surfed until evening.

Kama's stewards and food-preparers made their chief's food ready. Lono did not say what he wished for the evening. After they had surfed, bathed in fresh water, and dressed in dry tapa, dusk came. The chiefs suggested eating. Kama's food and ʻawa had been prepared beforehand, but the food that Lono wished was not ready. Lono asked for his broiled chicken, and his head steward answered, "It is not ready." The chief felt ashamed because his food was not ready. Maui's chief made Hawaii's feel humiliated by showing the readiness of his servants. Lono gave his steward, named Puapua-kea, a blow that drew blood from his nose. The meal was to be served in the chief's eating house, but nothing was ready there.

Puapua-kea, still bleeding, took a gourd container, removed from it a fine mat made from the pandanus blossoms of Puna, spread it, took out a stone fire container, some charcoal, kindling, and the fire sticks. He made a fire with fire sticks in hand, kindled it until it lighted quickly, and lighted the charcoal. He tore pieces of ʻawa, put them in his mouth, grasped the chicken, tore off a wing, rubbed salt on it, and placed it on the fire; tore off a leg and laid it on the fire. He had one ball of ʻawa and then a second which was enough. The steward said, "The chief did not say anything to the servant. If he had, the servant would have deserved the beating." The chicken cooked very quickly, and the ʻawa was ready in a cup before the ʻawa of the chief of Maui had time to take effect. Puapua-kea won the banner! [By his speed and skill he had proved himself the better servant.] The chiefs and commoners praised Puapua-kea greatly because the chief of Maui had planned to humiliate the chief of Hawaii. When the feast was ready, Maui's chief said to Hawaii's, "Let us have broiled chicken and dog cooked over hot charcoal, to remove the bitterness of our ʻawa." The Hawaii chief had nothing there, and the other was well supplied. His personal servant, Puapua-kea, was ready. The ears of the dog and the wings of a chicken took but a short time to cook. Kama, ruler of Maui, said to Lono, ruler of Hawaii, "A desire has come into me for your servant. It is better that I have our servant."


["Let your servant be our servant,"] Lono replied, "This is not my servant, but an important person in my court. He is my younger brother, a protector of my land. I am the chief, and he comes next to me as chief of the island of Hawaii and its people."*

When the effect of the ʻawa began to wear off, the ruler of Maui asked the ruler of Hawaii, "After you have ruled until you are old, need the help of a cane, and become as bleary-eyed as a rat, who will be your successor?" Lono pointed to the person at his side, "This person here." Kama's heir replied, "Short of stature, stout and short, a shelf easily reached by a dog." Puapua-kea, Lono's heir said, "I may be a small person, but I am the small maika stone that can roll all over the field and win. I am the small sugar cane stalk of Kohala [whose fuzz] can irritate the nose."

The Hawaii chief then asked Kama, "After you have ruled until you need the support of a cane, become as bleary-eyed as a rat, and sprawl helplessly on a mat, who will be your successor?" Kama pointed to his younger brother, Maka-ku-i-ka-lani, and said, "This person." Lono's heir answered, "Tall, thin, spindly, and too slender. Falls easily with a gust of wind." Maka-ku-i-ka-lani retorted, "I am the tall banana tree of the wild mountain patch whose fruit does not ripen in a week. I am the long anchoring-root of the mountain. Though the wind blow, I do not fall."

After Lono departed from Maui, he made a circuit of Molokai. The chiefs of Molokai spent some time at Kalaupapa to surf. Halawa was the second-best place where the Molokai chiefs liked to surf. They welcomed the chief of Hawaii. The chiefs there enjoyed another sport, checkers (konane). It was there that Lono broke the konane board after an argument with Ka-iki-lani, a woman. Because she was fond of her board, he saved one pebble. The board could not break until his personal attendant, Hauna, arrived. There was no one more able to break the board of Ka-iki-lani than he.

Lono sailed away and landed at Lapawai, Kailua, Oahu. Ka-ʻihi-kapu-a-Kuhi-hewa was the chief of the hilly Koʻolau side of the island, and Lono was graciously welcomed by him. They displayed their chiefly emblems, and the one thing that created much admiration from the chiefs of Oahu was the large kahili of Hawaii. Ka-ʻihi-kapu-a-Kuhi-hewa tried to buy his feathered staff, but the price was high.

One of Lono's sons was named for Ka-ʻihi-kapu-a-Kuhi-hewa, that is Ka-ʻihi-kapu-mahana. That son of Lono was taken to Paʻalaʻa, Waialua, and he became the ancestor of the people there. It was in this way that he became an ancestor there: Ka-ʻihi-kapu-mahana mated

* Ke An ʻOkoʻa, Jan. 19, 1871.


with Aila, and Ka-welo-a-Aila and Kaina-Aila were born. Ka-welo-a-Aila (also called Ka-welo-iki-a-Aila) mated with Ka-ua-kahi-hele-i-ka-wi' and Kulu-ahi, Ka-halana-moe-ʻino, and Hoʻolau were born.

Lono went with Ka-ʻihi-kapu to surf at Kalapawai. The chief's home was named Pamoa, and the thing that was much done there was to recite the chant of Kuhi-hewa II, called Ke-alialia. Kuhi-hewa appropriated the chant for himself, for it had belonged to a woman of Kauai. Lono had learned the chant from this woman, whose name was ʻOhai-kawili-ʻula. When Lono wandered insane on Kauai he adopted her as a relative (hoʻowahine), and thus learned the chant. After surfing, the chiefs returned to the house. The sacred cord was set up [at the entrance], and the guards would not admit anyone with a wet loin cloth. The native chief could receive a dry loin cloth and step over his own tabu sign, but the stranger could not receive a dry loin cloth until he was able to chant one chant. Lono, chief of Hawaii, was made to feel humiliation by being refused a loin cloth unless he chanted the chant of the Oahu chief. Lono said, "My attendants composed that chant, Ke-alialia, for me and not for any other chief." The Oahu chiefs asked Lanahu-ʻimi-haku and others, "Is it true that the chant, Ke-alialia, was composed for Lono?" They replied, "We do not know, for we have not heard that it belonged to him. He claims that his attendants composed it when he was a child, but we deny that he had a chant like that." When Lono made comparison with his version of Ke-alialia, those who appropriated it and gave it to Ka-kuhi-hewa II failed to complete it. Lono won Ke-alialia. (This is a lengthy chant.) Fishing was another sport enjoyed by Ka-kuhi-hewa and Lono. Ka-kuhi-hewa lost in that contest of skill. In canoe-racing and other sports Ka-kuhi-hewa lost to the chief of Hawaii.

Lono sailed away to Kauai, to Niihau, to Kaʻula, and returned after being welcomed by the chiefs. One of his grandsons, Kaina-Aila, remained on Kauai and mixed with the chiefs there, thus: Kaina-Aila mated with Ka-pu-lauki' and had Kulu-i-ua. Kulu-i-ua mated with Ka-ua-kahi-lau and had Lono-i-kai-hopu-kaua-o-ka-lani. Lono-i-kai-hopu-kaua-o-ka-lani mated with Kamu and had Kau-me-he-ʻiwa. These were the ancestors of chiefs and commoners on Kauai. When Lono returned to Hawaii he found the chiefs still at peace. There he remained in peace with the chiefs of Kona, Hilo, and Ka-ʻu.

Kama [chief of Maui] grew weary of continued peace with the chiefs of Hawaii, and desired to make war against the chiefs of Kohala, Kona, and Ka-ʻu. He did not want to fight against the chiefs of Hilo because they were cousins of the Maui chiefs. He sent some men to spy


in Hawaii. They were his half brother, Ka-uhi-o-ka-lani, a son of Kiha-a-Piʻi-lani, and [with him] a man chosen from among the fastest runners. They were to see how large the population was, and if it was large to report it truthfully. If it was not, then war could be declared against Hawaii.

The spies sent by Kama-lala-walu went to Hawaii and landed at Kawaihae in the evening. Ka-uhi-o-ka-lani ran about that same evening and returned before the canoes were dismantled and placed in the house. The keepers of the gods at Mailekini were servants of Kama, and so they concealed the canoes of the spies. When Ka-uhi-o-ka-lani returned his fellow spies and hosts asked, "Where did you go?" "I went visiting from here to the lava bed and the pond that lies along the length of the land." "Kaniku is the lava bed and Kiholo, the pond. Then did you turn back?" "No, I went on to the long stretch of sand, to the small bay with a point on that side and one on this side. There are large inland ponds." "The sandy stretch is ʻOhiki, and the walled-in ponds are Kaloko and Honokohau. Then you came back?" "No, I went on to the large rocky cape below, where there was a small bay with big groves of coconut trees. The land from there on is good, and a small village is located there." "The point that juts out is Hiʻiaka-noho-lae and the sandy beach inside of that is Kaiakeakua. Next is Kailua. The coconut groves are Holualoa and Kahaluʻu. Then you came back?" "No, I went to the hill below with a bay inside [the hill below which a bay reaches far into the land]. A cliff stands back of the bay, and there is a sharp ridge like the comb of a cock. There is a hole [cave mouth] underneath that leads where the smooth, water-worn stones are. I laid a section of my sugar cane right over the entrance" [of that cave]. The natives replied, "The hill is Puʻuohau; the bay is Kaʻawaloa; the hole that leads in is Lepeamoa. Your swiftness is like that of a god. The day has waned into evening, and the baggage on the canoes has not been completely removed by us. This is indeed marvelous."

Next morning the spies began a circuit of Hawaii. At Kalepeamoa, Anapuka [the cave] in Kaʻawaloa, they found the section of sugar cane on the cliff. (What a fast runner he was! If he tried to make a circuit of Hawaii he would have made it in a single day.) This fast runner was Ka-uhi-o-ka-lani, brother of the ruler, Kama-lala-walu. He was the son of Kiha-a-Piʻi-lani by Kolea-moku, a native of Hana. These spies of Kama-lala-walu went around Hawaii to see how many people there were. After they had been around, they returned to report to their chief, saying, "We went all around Hawaii. There were many houses, but few men. We went to Kohala and found the men


only on the shores." These spies were mistaken when they denied that there were many men on Hawaii [as the saying was], "Bare of inhabitants is Kohala, for the men are at the coast." The spies had seen the land of Kohala [but had failed to see the people for] on all of the fields where sports were held from inner Kohala to outer Kohala, from Kohala of the coastal cliffs to Kohala of the inland, a crowd of people gathered every day from morning to night to play. Kohala was known as a thickly-populated land. The spies thought that if Kohala was conquered. Kona, Ka-ʻu and Puna would be easily taken. and they felt that Hilo and Hamakua would lend no assistance. This was true, for the chiefs of these districts were cousins of the chiefs of Maui.

When Kama-lala-walu, ruler of Maui, heard the report of his spies, he was eager to stir his chiefs, his sons, and warriors to make war on Hawaii. The prophets, seers, readers of omens, and all of the learned men of the land heard of it and came to him with their prophecies concerning the war against Hawaii. Most of the prophets and seers supported the chief's desire and gave dogs as their omen of victory [said that clouds taking the form of dogs foretold victory]. The dogs were a sign of fierceness, and so would the chief fiercely attack the enemy and gain the victory with great slaughter of the foe. Part of the prophets and seers came to the chief with prophecies denying his victory, and urging him not to go to fight against Hawaii. If the chief would stubbornly insist on war, he himself would be killed, and his chiefs and warriors slaughtered. It would be fortunate indeed if one of them would be spared if taken captive. When the chief heard them say that if he went to fight against Hawaii, then he would die, and his chiefs and warriors would be slaughtered, he made them a promise, "If I return in victory after the war, then I will burn you alive in the fire." The prophets who told him not to go said that they were not afraid of his threats. They came before him with their prophecies. Thus did Lani-kaula, Kiu, and Kaohi, and this was one of the prophecies uttered:

The Kiu is the wind,

A gusty, moisture-laden wind,

That roars down to Maulukai

And rushes up to Pauwela.

There it flies, O Lono,

Where Wahinekapu watches over the water Kapoʻulu.

The sweet-potato vines of Makailiʻi

Are scorched by the sun, O Lono.


Kama-lala-walu went with his chiefs, his royal sons, the heir to the government of Maui, the warriors, and learned counselors. Upon landing in Kohala, battle began at once by the destruction of the Ko-hala people. The natives were put to rout. At that time a high chief of Hawaii, Kanaloa-kuaʻana, the son of Keawe-nui-a-ʻUmi, was taken and cruelly treated. His whole skin was tattooed, his eyelids turned inside out and tattooed. Kanaloa-kuaʻana was renamed Ka-maka-hiwa (Blackened-eyes) and Ka-maka-paweo (Shamed-eyes).

From Kohala, Kama-lala-walu set forth for Kawaihae, and found no one there. The people had gone up to Waimea, for all observed the services at the heiau of Mailekini. Only those of lower Kawaihae and Puako remained. The battlefield was at Waimea. Kama-lala-walu's counselors said, "Waimea is not a good battle site for strangers because the plain is long, and there is no water. Should defeat be met with by the warring strangers, they will all be slaughtered. It is better to go to Kona to fight, as there will be a resting place for the canoes. There will be no trouble in fighting."

Kama-lala-walu, the heedless chief, paid no attention, but followed the advice of two old men of Kawaihae who counseled falsely. One of them was named Puhau-kole. They said, "Puʻoaʻoaka is a good battlefield and will be a great help to the chief. All the canoes should be taken apart because the warriors may desire to run back to the canoes and depart in secret for Maui. The best thing to do is to cut up the canoes and outriggers, for there are canoes enough in Hawaii. When it is conquered, there will be many canoes from Kona and Ka-ʻu, There will be much property and wealth for the Maui chiefs." The chief, Kama-lala-walu, listened to the advice of Puhau-kole and his companion. Their suggestions were carried out, and the canoes were broken up. Then Kama-lala-walu's fighting men went up to the grass-covered plain of Waimea.

After Kama-lala-walu's warriors reached the grassy plain, they looked seaward on the left and beheld the men of Kona advancing toward them. The lava bed of Kaniku and all the land up to Huʻehuʻe was covered with the men of Kona. Those of Ka-ʻu and Puna were coming down from Mauna Kea, and those of Waimea and Kohala were on the level plain of Waimea. The men covered the whole of the grassy plain of Waimea like locusts. Kama-lala-walu with his warriors dared to fight. The battlefield of Puʻoaʻoaka was outside of the grassy plain of Waimea, but the men of Hawaii were afraid of being taken captive by Kama, so they led to the waterless plain lest Maui's warriors find water and hard, waterworn pebbles. The men of Hawaii feared that the Maui warriors would find water to drink and become stronger for


the slinging of stones that would fall like raindrops from the sky. The stones would fall about with a force like lightning, breaking the bones into pieces and causing sudden death as if by bullets.

Maui almost won in the first battle because of Hawaii's lack of a strong champion. Maka-ku-i-ka-lani was first on the field and defied any man on Hawaii to match strength with him. Maka-ku-i-ka-lani tore Hawaii's champion apart. When Puapua-kea arrived later by way of Mauna Kea, those of Hawaii rejoiced at having their champion. Maka-ku-i-ka-lani and Puapua-kea matched their strength in club fighting on the battle site before the two sides plunged into the fight.* The first stroke belonged to Maka-ku-i-ka-lani, and his club-fighting instructor had taught him that the strokes to use on Puapua-kea were the ones that his grandfather, Hoʻolae-makua, used. The upper stroke was called Ka-wala-kiʻi, the lower one, Laumaki. He used the Ka-wala stroke above and the to below. Puapua-kea was thrown upward, the base of his ear struck, and the ear torn off. There was a thud against his skull, and blood poured from it. Puapua-kea became dizzy and fell. Maka-ku-i-ka-lani's instructor said, "The mighty warrior is not dead. You did not use the favorite stroke of your grandfather, Hoʻolae-makua." Maka said, "He is dead. A handsome man needs to use but one stroke." Puapua-kea, being struck dizzy with Maka-ku-i-ka-lani's club, lay still. Maka-ku-i-ka-lani was told to strike again to see if he was dead.

After lying still, Puapua-kea arose and stood on the battle field. His teacher in club fighting, Ka-welo, suggested Wahie-ʻekeʻeke for the upper stroke, and Huʻalepo for the lower one. He also said, "O Kanaloa-kuaʻana, the strokes will be too low," because he noticed how tall Maka-ku-i-ka-lani was. Puapua-kea retorted, "The teacher's instruction ceases after leaving home. The club from tip to base could strike from head to spine." The instructor said, "Kill the mighty warrior." Puapua-kea looked at the palm of his hand and said, "He shall die, for it is marked here." They ran out on the grassy plain, and there Maka-ku-i-ka-lani was killed.

[Then] the two sides began to fight. Short and long spears were flung, and death took its toll on both sides. The Maui men who were used to slinging shiny, water-worn stones grabbed up the stones of Puʻoaʻoaka. A cloud of dust rose to the sky and twisted about like smoke, but the lava rocks were light, and few of the Hawaii men were killed by them. This was one of the things that helped to destroy the warriors of Kama-lala-walu: They went away out on the plain where

* Ke Au Okoa, Jan. 26, 1871.


the strong fighters were unable to find water. If they did find some, it was from the little pools of Lani-maomao [rain water caught in hollows].

The warriors of Maui were put to flight, and the retreat to Kawaihae was long. [Yet] there were many who did reach Kawaihae, but because of a lack of canoes, only a few escaped with their lives. Most of the chiefs and warriors from Maui were destroyed. Those who escaped on bait-carrying canoes [malau] were sunk and destroyed by the Hawaii warriors. Some escaped by way of Kohala, found canoes, and returned to Maui. Ka-uhi-a-Kama, the oldest son of Kama-lala-walu by Kapu-kini, was the heir of the government of Maui. He escaped to Ke-kaha, on Hawaii, secured a canoe, and thus found his way back to Maui.

The person who saved him was Hinau, foster son of Lono-i-ka-makahiki. Ka-uhi-a-Kama made Hinau's name a famous one. It was said that Ka-uhi-a-Kama was annoyed with Hinau because he was a favorite of Lono-i-ka-makahiki, and sought means of destroying him. It was said that his [Hinau's] eyes were scooped out. Some say that Ka-uhi-a-Kama was not killed on Hawaii because his mother, Kapu-kini-akua, belonged there. This is shown in the genealogy of the Hawaii chiefs. Maka-kau-aliʻi mated with Ka-ʻaoʻao-wao, and Kapu-kini-akua (female), and Keawe-nui-hoʻokapu-ka-lani and ʻUmi-nui-ka-ʻai-lani were born. They were among the chiefs of Hawaii who took part in this war. So was Iwi-kau-i-ka-ua, another son of Maka-kau-aliʻi. He was an uncle of Ka-uhi-a-Kama. These were all high chiefs of Kona in Hawaii, and there was no reason for his death in the war there. [Because of these chiefly relatives Ka-uhi-a-Kama was not killed.] Kama-lala-walu, ruler of Maui, was killed on the grassy plain of Puako, and some of his chiefs were also destroyed. Kama-lala-walu was noted for his fearlessness, and he died bravely before the chiefs and warriors of Hawaii. He showed no fear or cowardice, but went forward to meet his death. He was famed for his fearlessness, and it was made known in a chant of praise thus:

O ka hull koa nui a Kama-lala- A mighty warrior was Kama-lala-

walu, walu,

O ke aluka koa a Kama i Waimea. A multitude of warriors had he at


O ka huli o ka ʻanapu a kaikoa, A brave warrior he, like a flash

of lightning!

O ka huli koa a Papa ia Owa', A brave warrior of the lineage of



O ka huli koa nui a Kama-lala- A mighty warrior was Kama-lala-

walu, walu

O ke aluka koa a Kama i Waimea, A multitude of warriors had he at


O Kama a Poʻokoa, Kama, kinsmen of Poʻokoa,

A Ka-ʻaoʻao a Maka-ku-i-ka-lani, Of Ka-ʻaoʻao and of Maka-ku-i-


O ke koa aliʻi o ʻUmi-ka-la-kaua. And the chiefly warrior, ʻUmi-ka-


In this battle of Kama-lala-walu at Puʻu-ʻoaʻoaka in Waimea, Hawaii, his name became renowned and attached to his islands as "Maui, land of Kama." Ka-uhi-a-Kama succeeded as ruler of Maui, and his children and grandchildren became chiefs there.

When Lono-i-ka-makahiki, ruler of Hawaii, died, his children and his descendants did not become rulers of the government. His name was made famous through the Makahiki god, Lono-i-ka-ʻou-aliʻi, and [he] was thus thought of as a god of the Makahiki celebration. The name Lono was combined with the word Makahiki, thus making it Lono-i-ka-makahiki.

Lono had sons by Ka-iki-lani-kohe-paniʻo, named Keawe-Hanau-i-ka-walu and Ka-ʻihi-kapu-mahana. They did not become their father's heirs. The rule went to Kanaloa-kuaʻana's descendants, but not the whole of Hawaii, only Kohala, Kona, and Ka-ʻu. Hawaii was divided into small divisions. The children of Kanaloa-kuaʻana, by Maka-kau-aliʻi's sister Ka-iki-lani, and their descendants became rulers. Kanaloa-kua-ʻana mated with Ka-iki-lani, who was older than Maka-kau-aliʻi, and Ke-liʻi-o-ka-lani, Keakea-lani-kane, and Ka-lani-o-ʻumi were born. Ke-liʻi-o-ka-lani mated with Keakea-lani-kane, and to them was born Ke-aka-mahana. Ke-aka-mahana was made ruler of Hawaii, but not the whole of it for there were other chiefs over Hilo and Hamakua. Those [districts] were held by the descendants of Keawe-nui-a-ʻUmi by Kamola-nui-a-ʻUmi, Kumalae-nui-a-ʻUmi by Ku-nuʻu-nui-a-ʻUmi, and Kumalae-nui-a-ʻUmi by Ku-nuʻu-nui-puʻawa-lau. Their children and grandchildren were the rulers of Hilo and Hamakua.

Chiefs of Kona recognized one as head over all and they all called called her their lord. They left the government to her and exalted her. Their ruler was Ke-aka-mahana, a woman. This sacred woman, Ke-aka-mahana, was married to Iwi-kau-i-ka-ua, a chief of Hawaii. Their rank was not equal as his was lower than hers for hers was of piʻo rank, and her family included the tabu chiefs of Kauai. Her grandfather [ancestor], named Maka-liua, was from Kauai. She was one of the piʻo rank be-


cause her parents were brother and sister, Ke-liʻi-o-ka-lani and Keakea-lani-kane. When Ke-aka-mahana was born she was taken to Kauai to be reared, and when the chiefs of Hawaii desired a sacred ruler over their government they went to Kauai to bring her back.

This sacred woman ruled and found a husband, Iwi-kau-i-ka-ua. She despised the oldest daughter of Iwi-kau-i-ka-ua by his sister Kapu-kini-akua, and [despised] his mother. She had his mother and daughter killed and their bones mistreated. When Iwi-kau-i-ka-ua discovered that his mother and daughter had been secretly murdered, his mind became possessed with a desire to desert his wife and betray her government to the chiefs of Hilo. Iwi-kau-i-ka-ua made a circuit of Hawaii and kept torches burning night and day. This burning of torches became famous and was spoken of as the "Kukui torches of Iwi-kau-i-ka-ua." [Lighted torches came to be associated with him and his descendants.] His determination led him to go and live on Oahu where he married an Oahu chiefess, named Ka-ua-kahi-a-kuaʻana-au-a-kane, and they had one son, Kane-i-ka-ua-iwi-lani. When he (Kane-i-ka-ua-iwi-lani) had grown up, he went to Hawaii to marry his half sister Keakea-lani, the daughter of Iwi-kau-i-ka-ua by Ke-aka-mahana. To this union was born a daughter, Ka-lani-kau-lele-ia-iwi.

After Iwi-kau-i-ka-ua left Hawaii, a war began among the chiefs of Hawaii. There was much fighting between the chiefs of Kona and Hilo, but neither was defeated. The chiefs of Kona desired Hilo, Hamakua, and Laʻa because of the mamo and ʻoʻo feathers, the war canoes, and fine tapas such as the ʻoʻuholmuai, ʻeleuli, palaʻaʻ, and kalukalu of Waipiʻo. The chiefs of Hilo in turn desired warm food and drinking water, and tough and tender fish. Those were the wealth of Kona. The war lasted through several centuries.

It was said that the cause which started the war between the chiefs of Hilo and Kona was the cruel treatment of Kuaʻana, chief of Hilo, by the chiefs of Kona. He was the son of ʻI by Hoʻo-lei-aliʻi, a chiefess of Hana. Kuaʻana was taken captive by the chiefs of Kona, pushed up and down in the sea at Kawaihae, and barely escaped with his life. He was seen by Palena, a Kohala chief, who said to the chiefs of Kohala and Kona that were forcing Kuaʻana under water, "Be careful with the offspring of ʻI, lest later the tough root of ʻI crawl hither." Palena let Kuaʻana escape by canoe, all by himself, and the wind blew the canoe until it landed on Maui. Kuaʻana sought his mother, Hoʻolei-aliʻi, after his life was saved and found her at Hamoa in Hana.

The news of the cruel treatment of Kuaʻana, a chief of Hilo, by the chiefs of Kona was heard by those of Hilo, and they prepared for war. Kuahuʻia, son of Kuaʻana, was the chief war leader there. Kuaʻana


noticed the bonfire indicating war in Hamakua and knew that the chiefs of Hilo were going to make war against those of Kona. Kuaʻana suggested to his mother that she give him some men and warriors to help his son, Kuahuʻia. When Kuaʻana met his son they were very happy to see each other.

Sometimes the victory went to the chiefs of Kona, but more often to the chiefs of Hilo. Kona's chiefs fled to their fortresses, and Keakea-lani and others were taken captive when the Hilo chiefs won. Keakea-lani and her company were sent as prisoners to Maui and to Molokai. Keakea-lani was restored to Kohala where she ruled, in name only, over the districts of Kohala, Kona, and Ka-ʻu. The chiefs of Kona combined in fighting those of Hilo, but the victory was always Hilo's during the reigns of Kuaʻana, Kuahuʻia, Ka-lani-ku-kau-laʻalaʻa, and Moku.

After Moku's time the Hilo chiefs ceased to reign. The rulers of Kona who succeeded Ke-aka-mahana were her daughter, Keakea-lani, and her [Keakea-lani's] son, Keawe. While the war was raging between the chiefs of Hilo and those of Kona, Keakea-lani was the ruler over the people of Kona and Kohala. The Mahi clan were the war leaders, that is, they were in charge. They were Mahi-kukuku, Mahi-ʻololi', Mahi-o-Palena, Palena, Luahine, Paua, and many others in the chiefly families of Kona and Kohala. But the chiefs of Hilo were always victorious over those of Kona. In the large battle at the sheer cliffs, the chiefs of Hilo won. In the important battle at Kahinaʻi, Pae and Ka-lani-ku-kau-laʻalaʻa were Hilo's principal war leaders. After they won the battle of Huʻehuʻe the secret places and burial caves in Kona were broken open. In the battle of Mahiki, Ka-lani-ku-kau-laʻalaʻa and Moku were the chief war leaders of Hilo. Some war canoes were brought from Kauai by Kona-kai-aleʻe and others, to aid the Hilo chiefs. They were victorious and the Kona chiefs were slaughtered. One of the high chiefs of Kona, named Ka-uaua-nui-a-Mahi, was also slain.*

* Ke Au O koa, Feb. 2, 1871.

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